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TKINSMUTATIOH OP LETTEKS.                  .                     355

11.    m and v are interchangeable : thns dhim-fa^ *a fisherman/ becomes
dhimar; gauna stands for gamana, Bkamani for Bkavdni^  and  knnvar for
jfcwmdra.    Similarly jun, or joim, in the sense of * time,' stands for jdmy the
Sanskrit yama, the nasal being an insertion.    So also in the Gita Gobinda
vdmana is made to rhyme with pdvana,

12.    A nasal can be inserted anywhere, as in gdnw, ca village/
and in kaun, " "who/' for fe>.

13*   p simple is elided: as in Ma, 'a well/ for Mpa;  Wv&dla, <a

for Ihupdld ; kait, the tree Eeronia elephantnm^ for kapiUha ; and aur, the
conjunctive particle, for apara. So also when standing first in a conjunct ;
thus from supta,  asleep/ conies sota. It may also be changed into a, as in
a^ for gopdld, and kotwdl for kotta-pdla*

14.    r becomes n:  thus  Jcaravtrdy   Hhe  oleander/  becomes  kanavtra,
cij kernel.

15.    r in a conjnnct is elided ; thus grama, c a village/ becomes gdm7 or
gdnw ; karma} ' an act/ Mw; Srdmn, the month so  called^   Sdvan;  vdrtta^
4 business/ 6d; and vartmany  { a road/ 5d^ ^here the charge of the dental
into the cerebral t compensates for the loss of the final

16.    sh is converted into M; optionally, whenever it occurs.   Similarly
the Greek j3po)(j) represents the Sanskrit varsha3 and in the modern Cretan
dialect becomes again vroshe.
17.    Cerebral t occasionally becomes rr thus from parJcatiy the Eicus
veaosa/ we have pdkar.
18.    ?, vhen siniplej is elided : tbns from jciti-pkal, tfa nut-meg/ comes
jai-pJial : and from Sit aid, the goddess of small-pox, dyar*    Thus, too, in the
Ramayana, Sitd frequently appears as Sia, or Sfya.
19.    v when simple is elided : as in upas,  a fast/ for upavds.
20.    Simple y is elided.* as in raor,  a peacock/ for maya/ra; Prd^r for
Praytig ; and 0/Aa, f a particular caste/' for Upddhydya.
21.    The loss of one consonant in a conjunct receives compensation in
the lengthening of the preceding TO^el : thus we  have nim for nimba ; ndti^
ea grandson/  for  naptri; d^e^ 'before/ for   agre ; dk,  the  plant Asclepias
gigantea, for arkd ; ddhdj  half/ for ardha ; and r(ta} & empty/ for rikta.